Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2011
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Operations and Principles of Consolidation. KLA-Tencor Corporation (“KLA-Tencor” or the “Company”) is a leading supplier of process control and yield management solutions for the semiconductor and related nanoelectronics industries. Headquartered in Milpitas, California, KLA-Tencor has subsidiaries both in the United States and in key markets throughout the world.
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of KLA-Tencor and its majority-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Management Estimates. The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments. KLA-Tencor has evaluated the estimated fair value of financial instruments using available market information and valuations as provided by third-party sources. The use of different market assumptions and/or estimation methodologies could have a significant effect on the estimated fair value amounts. The fair value of the Company's cash, cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and other current liabilities approximate their carrying amounts due to the relatively short maturity of these items.
Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities. All highly liquid debt instruments with original or remaining maturities of less than three months at the date of purchase are considered to be cash equivalents. Marketable securities are generally classified as available-for-sale for use in current operations, if required, and are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, presented as a separate component of stockholders’ equity under the caption “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).” All realized gains and losses and unrealized losses resulting from declines in fair value that are other than temporary are recorded in earnings in the period of occurrence. The specific identification method is used to determine the realized gains and losses on investments. For all investments in debt and equity securities, the Company assesses whether the impairment is other than temporary. If the fair value of a debt security is less than its amortized cost basis, an impairment is considered other than temporary if (i) the Company has the intent to sell the security or it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its entire amortized cost basis, or (ii) the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost of the security. If an impairment is considered other than temporary based on condition (i), the entire difference between the amortized cost and the fair value of the security is recognized in earnings. If an impairment is considered other than temporary based on condition (ii), the amount representing credit losses, defined as the difference between the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected and the amortized cost basis of the debt security, will be recognized in earnings, and the amount relating to all other factors will be recognized in other comprehensive income. The Company evaluates both qualitative and quantitative factors such as duration and severity of the unrealized loss, credit ratings, default and loss rates of the underlying collateral, structure and credit enhancements to determine if a credit loss may exist.
Non-Marketable Equity Securities and Other Investments. KLA-Tencor acquires certain equity investments for the promotion of business and strategic objectives, and, to the extent these investments continue to have strategic value, the Company typically does not attempt to reduce or eliminate the inherent market risks. Non-marketable equity securities and other investments are recorded at historical cost. Non-marketable equity securities and other investments are included in “Other non-current assets” on the balance sheet. Non-marketable equity securities are subject to a periodic impairment review; however, there are no open-market valuations, and the impairment analysis requires significant judgment. This analysis includes assessment of the investee’s financial condition, the business outlook for its products and technology, its projected results and cash flow, the likelihood of obtaining subsequent rounds of financing and the impact of any relevant contractual equity preferences held by the Company or others.
Variable Interest Entities. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) requires that if the Company is the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity, the assets, liabilities and results of operations of the variable interest entity should be included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. KLA-Tencor has concluded that none of the Company’s equity investments are material to the Company’s financial position and do not require consolidation as they are either not variable interest entities or, of the equity investments that are variable interest entities, the Company is not considered to be the primary beneficiary based on an assessment performed by management.
Inventories. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (on a first-in, first-out basis) or market. Demonstration units are stated at their manufacturing cost and written down to their net realizable value. The Company reviews and sets standard costs semi-annually at current manufacturing costs in order to approximate actual costs. The Company’s manufacturing overhead standards for product costs are calculated assuming full absorption of forecasted spending over projected volumes, adjusted for excess capacity. Abnormal inventory costs such as costs of idle facilities, excess freight and handling costs, and spoilage are recognized as current period charges. The Company writes down product inventory based on forecasted demand and technological obsolescence and parts inventory based on forecasted usage. These factors are impacted by market and economic conditions, technology changes, new product introductions and changes in strategic direction and require estimates that may include uncertain elements. Actual demand may differ from forecasted demand, and such differences may have a material effect on recorded inventory values.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. A majority of the Company’s trade receivables are derived from sales to large multinational semiconductor manufacturers throughout the world. In order to monitor potential credit losses, the Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition. An allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained for probable credit losses based upon the Company’s assessment of the expected collectibility of the accounts receivable. The allowance for doubtful accounts is reviewed on a quarterly basis to assess the adequacy of the allowance.
Property and Equipment. Property and equipment are recorded at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation of property and equipment is based on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which are generally thirty to thirty-five years for buildings, ten to fifteen years for leasehold improvements, five to seven years for furniture and fixtures, and two to five years for machinery and equipment. Leasehold improvements are amortized by the straight-line method over the shorter of the life of the related asset or the term of the underlying lease. Construction in process assets are not depreciated until the assets are placed in service. Depreciation expense for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009 was $39.3 million, $43.5 million and $54.7 million, respectively.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets. The Company assesses goodwill for impairment annually as well as whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Long-lived intangible assets are tested for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. See Note 6, “Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets” for a detailed description. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired in each business combination. The Company conducted its annual evaluation of goodwill by reporting unit during the three months ended December 31, 2010 and concluded that there was no impairment. There have been no significant events or circumstances affecting the valuation of goodwill subsequent to the impairment test performed in the three months ended December 31, 2010. The next annual evaluation of the goodwill by reporting unit will be performed in the three months ending December 31, 2011.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. KLA-Tencor evaluates the carrying value of its long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the asset may be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized when estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset, including disposition, is less than the carrying value of the asset. Such an impairment charge would be measured as the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its fair value.
Software Development Costs. KLA-Tencor capitalizes certain internal and external costs incurred to acquire and create internal use software. Capitalized software is included in property and equipment when development is complete and is depreciated over three to five years when placed in service.
Concentration of Credit Risk. Financial instruments that potentially subject KLA-Tencor to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents, short-term and non-current marketable securities, trade accounts receivable and derivative financial instruments used in hedging activities. The Company invests in a variety of financial instruments, such as, but not limited to, certificates of deposit, corporate and municipal securities, United States Treasury and Government agency securities, and equity securities and, by policy, limits the amount of credit exposure with any one financial institution or commercial issuer. The Company has not experienced any material credit losses on its investments.
A majority of the Company's trade receivables are derived from sales to large multinational semiconductor manufacturers located throughout the world, with a majority located in Asia. Concentration of credit risk with respect to trade receivables is considered to be limited due to the Company’s customer base and the diversity of its geographic sales areas. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and generally requires no collateral to secure accounts receivable. The Company maintains an allowance for potential credit losses based upon expected collectibility of all accounts receivable. In addition, the Company may utilize letters of credit or non-recourse factoring to mitigate credit risk when considered appropriate.
The Company is exposed to credit loss in the event of non-performance by counterparties on the foreign exchange contracts that the Company uses in hedging activities and in certain factoring transactions. These counterparties are large international financial institutions, and to date no such counterparty has failed to meet its financial obligations under such contracts.
For the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009, the following customers each accounted for more than 10% of total revenues:
As of June 30, 2011 and 2010, the following customers each accounted for more than 10% of net accounts receivable:
Foreign Currency. The functional currencies of KLA-Tencor’s foreign subsidiaries are the local currencies, except as described below. Accordingly, all assets and liabilities of these foreign operations are translated to U.S. dollars at current period end exchange rates, and revenues and expenses are translated to U.S. dollars using average exchange rates in effect during the period. The gains and losses from foreign currency translation of these subsidiaries’ financial statements are recorded directly into a separate component of stockholders’ equity under the caption “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).”
The Company's manufacturing subsidiaries in Germany, Israel, Belgium, Hong Kong and Singapore use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. Accordingly, monetary assets and liabilities in non-functional currency of these subsidiaries are remeasured using exchange rates in effect at the end of the period. Revenues and costs in local currency are remeasured using average exchange rates for the period, except for costs related to those balance sheet items that are remeasured using historical exchange rates. The resulting remeasurement gains and losses are included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations as incurred.
Derivative Financial Instruments. KLA-Tencor uses financial instruments, such as forward exchange contracts and currency options, to hedge a portion of, but not all, existing and forecasted foreign currency denominated transactions. The purpose of the Company's foreign currency program is to manage the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on certain foreign currency denominated revenues, costs and eventual cash flows. The effect of exchange rate changes on forward exchange contracts is expected to offset the effect of exchange rate changes on the underlying hedged items. The Company believes these financial instruments do not subject the Company to speculative risk that would otherwise result from changes in currency exchange rates. The Company does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative or trading purposes.
All of the Company's derivative financial instruments are recorded at fair value based upon quoted market prices for comparable instruments adjusted for risk of counterparty non-performance. For derivative instruments designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges of forecasted foreign currency denominated transactions expected to occur within twelve months, the effective portion of the gain or loss on these hedges is reported as a component of "Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)" in stockholders’ equity, and is reclassified into earnings when the hedged transaction affects earnings. If the transaction being hedged fails to occur, or if a portion of any derivative is (or becomes) ineffective, the gain or loss on the associated financial instrument is recorded immediately in earnings. For derivative instruments used to hedge existing foreign currency denominated assets or liabilities, the gain or loss on these hedges is recorded immediately in earnings to offset the changes in the fair value of the assets or liabilities being hedged.
Warranty. KLA-Tencor provides standard warranty coverage on its systems for 40 hours per week for twelve months, providing labor and parts necessary to repair the systems during the warranty period. The Company accounts for the estimated warranty cost as a charge to costs of revenues when revenue is recognized. The estimated warranty cost is based on historical product performance and field expenses. Utilizing actual service records, the Company calculates the average service hours and parts expense per system and applies the actual labor and overhead rates to determine the estimated warranty charge. The Company updates these estimated charges on a quarterly basis. The actual product performance and/or field expense profiles may differ, and in those cases the Company adjusts its warranty accruals accordingly (see Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies”).
Revenue Recognition. KLA-Tencor recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the selling price is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. The Company derives revenue from three sources—sales of systems, spare parts and services. The Company typically recognizes revenue for system sales upon acceptance by the customer that the system has been installed and is operating according to predetermined specifications. Under certain circumstances, however, the Company recognizes revenue prior to acceptance from the customer, as follows:
The Company also allows for multiple element revenue arrangements in cases where certain elements of a sales arrangement are not delivered and accepted in one reporting period. In such cases, the Company defers the relative fair value of the undelivered elements until that element is delivered to the customer. To be considered a separate element, the product or service in question must represent a separate unit of accounting and fulfill the following criteria: (a) the delivered item(s) has value to the customer on a standalone basis; (b) there is objective and reliable evidence of the fair value of the undelivered items(s); and (c) if the arrangement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item(s), delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in the control of the Company. If the arrangement does not meet all the above criteria, the entire amount of the sales contract is deferred until all elements are accepted by the customer.
In many instances, products are sold in stand-alone arrangements. Services are sold separately through renewals of annual maintenance contracts. As a result, for substantially all of the arrangements with multiple deliverables pertaining to products and services, the Company uses vendor-specific objective evidence ("VSOE") or third-party evidence ("TPE") to allocate the selling price to each deliverable. The Company determines TPE based on historical prices charged for products and services when sold on a stand-alone basis.
When the Company is unable to establish relative selling price using VSOE or TPE, the Company uses estimated selling price ("ESP") in its allocation of arrangement consideration. The objective of ESP is to determine the price at which the Company would transact a sale if the product or service were sold on a stand-alone basis. ESP could potentially be used for new or customized products.
The Company regularly reviews relative selling prices and maintains internal controls over the establishment and updates of these estimates.
Trade-in rights are occasionally granted to customers to trade in tools in connection with subsequent purchases. The Company estimates the value of the trade-in right and reduces the revenue of the initial sale. This amount is recognized at the earlier of the exercise of the trade-in right or the expiration of the trade-in right.
Spare parts revenue is recognized when the product has been shipped, risk of loss has passed to the customer and collection of the resulting receivable is probable.
Service and maintenance contract revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the maintenance contract. If maintenance is included in an arrangement that includes a software license agreement, amounts related to maintenance are allocated based on fair value. Services performed in the absence of a contract, such as consulting and training revenue, are recognized when the related services are performed and collectibility is reasonably assured.
The deferred system profit balance equals the amount of deferred system revenue that was invoiced and due on shipment, less applicable product and warranty costs. Deferred system revenue represents the value of products that have been shipped and billed to customers which has not met the Company's revenue recognition criteria. Deferred system profit does not include the profit associated with product shipments to customers in Japan, to whom title does not transfer until customer acceptance. Shipments to customers in Japan are classified as inventory at cost until the time of acceptance.
The Company also defers the fair value of non-standard warranty bundled with equipment sales as unearned revenue. Non-standard warranty includes services incremental to the standard 40-hour per week coverage for twelve months. Non-standard warranty is recognized ratably as revenue when the applicable warranty term period commences.
Research and Development Costs. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Strategic Development Agreements. Gross engineering, research and development expenses were partially offset by $18.8 million, $13.7 million and $21.7 million in external funding received under certain strategic development programs primarily from government grants in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Shipping and Handling Costs. Shipping and handling costs are included as a component of cost of sales.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation Plans. The fair value of stock-based awards is measured at the grant date and is recognized as expense over the employee’s requisite service period. The fair value is determined using a Black-Scholes valuation model for purchase rights under the Company’s Employee Stock Purchase Plan and using the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date for restricted stock units. The Company has elected to not include the indirect tax effects of stock-based compensation deductions when calculating the windfall benefits and recognizes the full effect of these deductions in the income statement in the period in which the taxable event occurs.
Advertising Expenses. Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expenses for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2011, 2010 and 2009 were $2.2 million, $1.6 million and $2.3 million, respectively.
Income Taxes. KLA-Tencor accounts for income taxes in accordance with the authoritative guidance, which requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be recognized using enacted tax rates for the effect of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities. The guidance also requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that a portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. The Company has determined that a valuation allowance was necessary against a portion of the deferred tax assets, but that its future taxable income will be sufficient to recover the remainder of its deferred tax assets. However, should there be a change in the Company’s ability to recover its deferred tax assets, the Company could be required to record a valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets. This would result in an increase to the Company’s tax provision in the period in which the Company determined that the recovery was not probable.
The Company applies a two-step approach, based on authoritative guidance, to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained in audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company reevaluates these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit, and new audit activity. Any change in these factors could result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision.
Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is calculated by dividing net income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period increased to include the number of additional shares of common stock that would have been outstanding if the dilutive potential shares of common stock had been issued. The dilutive effect of outstanding options and restricted stock units is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method. The dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share when a net loss is recorded for the period as their effect would be anti-dilutive.
Contingencies and Litigation. The Company is subject to the possibility of losses from various contingencies. Considerable judgment is necessary to estimate the probability and amount of any loss from such contingencies. An accrual is made when it is probable that a liability has been incurred or an asset has been impaired and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company accrues a liability and recognizes as expense the estimated costs expected to be incurred over the next twelve months to defend or settle asserted and unasserted claims existing as of the balance sheet date. See Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies” and Note 14, “Litigation and Other Legal Matters” for a detailed description.
Reclassifications. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation. The reclassifications had no effect on the Consolidated Statements of Operations or Cash Flows.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements. In June 2011, the FASB amended its guidance on the presentation of comprehensive income. Under the amended guidance, an entity has the option to present comprehensive income in either one continuous statement or two consecutive financial statements. A single statement must present the components of net income and total net income, the components of other comprehensive income and total other comprehensive income, and a total for comprehensive income. In a two-statement approach, an entity must present the components of net income and total net income in the first statement. That statement must be immediately followed by a financial statement that presents the components of other comprehensive income, a total for other comprehensive income, and a total for comprehensive income. The option under current guidance that permits the presentation of components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in stockholders' equity has been eliminated. The amendment becomes effective retrospectively for the Company's interim period ending March 31, 2012. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect that this guidance will have an impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows as it is disclosure-only in nature.
In May 2011, the FASB amended its guidance to converge fair value measurement and disclosure guidance about fair value measurement under U.S. GAAP with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS"). IFRS is a comprehensive series of accounting standards published by the International Accounting Standards Board. The amendment changes the wording used to describe many of the requirements in U.S. GAAP for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements. For many of the requirements, the FASB does not intend for the amendment to result in a change in the application of the requirements in the current authoritative guidance. The amendment becomes effective prospectively for the Company's interim period ending March 31, 2012. Early application is not permitted. The Company does not expect the amendment to have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In December 2010, the FASB amended its guidance on goodwill and other intangible assets. The amendment modifies Step 1 of the goodwill impairment test for reporting units with zero or negative carrying amounts. For those reporting units, an entity is required to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test if there are qualitative factors indicating that it is more likely than not that a goodwill impairment exists. The qualitative factors are consistent with the existing guidance which requires goodwill of a reporting unit to be tested for impairment between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. This amendment was effective for the Company’s interim period ended March 31, 2011. The amendment did not have an impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In December 2010, the FASB amended its guidance on business combinations. Under the amended guidance, a public entity that presents comparative financial statements must disclose the revenues and earnings of the combined entity as though the business combination(s) that occurred during the current year had occurred as of the beginning of the prior annual reporting period. The amendment was effective prospectively for business combinations for which the acquisition date was on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after December 15, 2010. Early adoption is permitted. The amendment did not have an impact on the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In April 2010, the FASB amended its guidance on share-based payment awards denominated in certain currencies. The amendment clarifies that an employee share-based payment award with an exercise price denominated in the currency of a market in which a substantial portion of the entity’s equity securities trades should not be considered to contain a condition that is not a market, performance, or service condition. Therefore, an entity would not classify such an award as a liability if it otherwise qualifies as equity. This amendment becomes effective for the Company’s interim period ending September 30, 2011. The Company does not expect the implementation to have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In January 2010, the FASB issued authoritative guidance for fair value measurements. This guidance now requires a reporting entity to disclose separately the amounts of significant transfers in and out of Level 1 and Level 2 fair value measurements and also to describe the reasons for these transfers. This authoritative guidance also requires enhanced disclosure of activity in Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance for Level 1 and Level 2 fair value measurements was effective for the Company’s interim reporting period ended March 31, 2010. The implementation did not have an impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows as it is disclosure-only in nature. The guidance for Level 3 fair value measurements disclosures becomes effective for the Company’s interim reporting period ending September 30, 2011, and the Company does not expect that this guidance will have an impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows as it is disclosure-only in nature.
The entire disclosure for organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef